Радиационные и фотохимические методы дехлорирования полихлорбифенилов (Обзор)

  • З. И. Искендерова Институт Радиационных Проблем, Национальная Академия Наук Азербайджана, г. Баку, Азербайджанская республика https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3172-5007
Ключевые слова: полихлорированные бифенилы, дехлорирование, трансформаторное масло, гамма-излучение, УФ-излучение

Аннотация

В обзоре анализируются результаты исследований и разработок, посвященных применению радиационно-химических и фотохимических методов для дехлорирования опасных химических соединений – полихлорированных бифенилов (ПХБ). ПХБ широко выпускались ранее для применения в качестве диэлектрических жидкостей в трансформаторах и конденсаторах или в качестве присадок к трансформаторным маслам, которые до сих пор продолжают использоваться. В настоящее время ПХБ признаны стойкими органическими загрязнителями и, согласно Стокгольмской конвенции, должны быть обезврежены, а их запасы подлежат утилизации. В обзоре обобщена информация об исследованиях, в которых с помощью радиации и фотохимического воздействия выполняется очистка от ПХБ трансформаторных масел, гидравлических масел и некоторых видов жидких отходов. Рассмотрено воздействие на полихлорбифенилы различных видов ионизирующего излучения и ультрафиолетового излучения, в том числе в присутствии растворителей, щелочи и различных окисляющих добавок. Приведены энергетические выходы разложения, рассмотрены механизмы и скорости реакций деградации, степени разложения, продукты реакций. Сделанные выводы могут быть использованы в качестве практических рекомендаций по обезвреживанию систем, содержащих ПХБ, указанными методами.

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Опубликован
2019-12-26
Как цитировать
Искендерова, З. И. (2019). Радиационные и фотохимические методы дехлорирования полихлорбифенилов (Обзор). Химическая безопасность, 3(2), 130 - 150. https://doi.org/10.25514/CHS.2019.2.16009
Раздел
Технологии ликвидации источников химической опасности